Costa and McCrae (1992) express that some traits may be based on genes, especially openness to experience as this is related to intelligence, and intelligence is known to be inherited. Among these psychologists were Donald Fiske, Norman, Smith, Goldberg, and McCrae & Costa (Cherry, 2019). In review of studies on monozygotic and dizygotic twins, personality traits are much more similar between monozygotic twins. Timothy J. Kutta, Thomas J. Preston, Heather M. Maranges, Goldberg vs Costa/McCrae Five Factors, The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, 10.1002/9781118970843, (225-229), (2020). In particular, Lewis Goldberg advocated heavily for five primary factors of personality (Ackerman, 2017). There are two related, but conceptually distinct five-factor models, although many psychologists refer to the two interchangeably. Costa and McCrae. The integra-tive value of the model is clearly compromised by such discrepancies. According to the Five-factor model (Costa & McCrae, 2011), conscientiousness implies the ability to achieve a predetermined goal, whereby discipline and self-control are very important. In this paper I will discuss the history of the five-factor model, each of the five different personality traits, and how this is significant in my own life and my behavior. Costa and McCrae's "OCEAN model" is based on factor analyses of questionnaires. There has been some constructive criticism on the Big Five, Saucier and Goldberg … The two psychologists who discovered this theory are Costa and McCrae. It is hierarchical, in that the five factors are derived from factor analyses of lower-order facets. Wiley Online Library. In the 1970s two research teams led by Paul Costa and Robert R. McCrae of the National Institutes of Health and Warren Norman and Lewis Goldberg of … Two approaches have been used to resolve such problems of clas-sification. Costa and McCrae (1976) interpreted a similar factor as O. Renée M. Tobin, William G. Graziano, Agreeableness, The Wiley Encyclopedia of Personality and Individual Differences, 10.1002/9781118970843, (105-110), (2020). McCrae y Costa han ido más allá de la simple identificación de factores, puesto que proponen un modelo comparable al de Eysenck o Cattell, en el sentido de que no es únicamente descriptivo, pues pretenden justificar la naturaleza de los rasgos, describir sus relaciones y proponer utilidades del mismo en el contexto profesional y aplicado.