Shahan, T. (1912). Alexander's death at the hands of his troops can also be seen as the heralding of a new role for Roman emperors. [51] These assassinations secured the throne for Maximinus. [citation needed] The emperor returned to Rome and celebrated a triumph in 233. Gessius Bassianus Alexianus ( 209 AD, Fenicia–235, Galia). [6], The historian Cassius Dio thought Alexianus was the son of Marcus Julius Gessius Marcianus, but Icks disputes this, saying the latter could not have married the emperor's mother before 212 and that Alexianus must've been fathered by his mother's first husband, who is of unknown name but of certain existence. The vase formed the basis of Jasperware. Se le instruyó en todas las artes, derecho y ejército. [54] Indeed, Maximinus was able to overthrow Alexander by "harping on his own military excellence in contrast to that feeble coward". Under these circumstances the army swiftly looked to replace Alexander.[48]. His most famous wife was Sallustia Orbiana, Augusta, whom he married in 225 when she was 16 years old. WITNESS se reserva el derecho de transferir información personal a un sucesor interesado, que adquiere derechos con respecto a esa información, como resultado de la venta de WITNESS [...] o de casi la totalidad de sus activos. The discovery of the vase is described by Pietro Santi Bartoli and referenced on page 28 of a book on The Portland Vase. Alexander's peacetime reign was prosperous. Maesa died in 224, leaving Mamaea as the sole influence upon Alexander's actions. Alexander's grandmother Maesa believed that he had more potential to rule than her other grandson, the increasingly unpopular emperor Elagabalus. [27], On the whole, Alexander's reign was prosperous until the rise, in the east, of the Sassanids[28] under Ardashir I. [58], Alexander's second wife was Sulpicia Memmia, a member of one of the most ancient Patrician families in Rome. Because of this, he hoped the mere threat of his armies would be sufficient to persuade the hostile tribes to surrender. Puedes añadirlas así o avisar …   Wikipedia Español, Alejandro — is the Spanish form of the name Alexander.Alejandro is also the name of these places: * Alejandro de Humboldt National Park ( Parque Nacional Alejandro de Humboldt ), a national park in Cuba * Alejandro Selkirk Island, an island in the Juan… …   Wikipedia, Alejandro — puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Nombre 1.1 Personajes históricos 1.2 Alejandro I 1.3 Alejandro II 1.4 …   Wikipedia Español, Severo — puede ser: Septimio Severo (emperador romano 193–211) Alejandro Severo (emperador romano 222–235) Severo II (emperador romano 305–307) Libio Severo (emperador romano 461–465) Esta página de desambiguación cataloga artículos relacionados con el… …   Wikipedia Español, Alejandro (nombre) — Para otros usos de este término, véase Alejandro. [13], Lampridius documents two theories that elaborate on Severus's assassination. Fue oriundo de la ciudad de Afrodisias, en Caria.… …   Wikipedia Español, Alejandro Radetic — Datos personales Nombre Alejandro Radetic Nacionalidad …   Wikipedia Español, We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Alexander could not openly punish the ringleader of the riot, and instead removed him to nominal post of honor in Egypt and then Crete, where he was "quietly put out of the way" sometime after the excitement had abated. [16] Excessive luxury and extravagance at the imperial court were diminished,[17] and he restored the Baths of Nero in 227 or 229; consequently, they are sometimes also known as the Baths of Alexander after him. Alejandro Severo en el diccionari de traducció espanyol - català en Glosbe, diccionari en línia, gratis. According to the Historia Augusta, he wished to erect a temple to Jesus but was dissuaded by the pagan priests; however, much of this book is full of falsifications and modern scholars deem it almost completely untrustworthy. [2] He and his cousin were both grandsons of the very influential and powerful woman Julia Maesa, who had arranged for Elagabalus' acclamation as emperor by the famous Third Gallic Legion. The northernmost army gained some success, fighting in mountainous territory favorable to the Roman infantry, but the southern army was surrounded and destroyed by Ardashir's skilful horse-archers, and Alexander himself retreated after an indecisive campaign, his army wracked by indiscipline and disease. [4] He was also the second-youngest ever sole legal Roman Emperor during the existence of the united empire, the youngest being Gordian III. The Law Firm may also share the [...] information with a successor in interest, an affiliate [...] or its consultants who are obligat Perhaps his most tangible legacy was the emergence in the 16th Century of the 'Barberini vase'. Their marriage was arranged by Alexander's mother, Mamaea. They considered him dishonorable and feared he was unfit to be Emperor. A German servant entered the tent and initiated the call for Alexander's assassination, at which point many of the troops joined in the attack. Alexander was assassinated on 19 March 235, together with his mother, in a mutiny of the Legio XXII Primigenia at Moguntiacum (Mainz) while at a meeting with his generals. Upon his accession he reduced the silver purity of the denarius from 46.5% to 43%—the actual silver weight dropped from 1.41 grams to 1.30 grams; however, in 229 he revalued the denarius, increasing the silver purity and weight to 45% and 1.46 grams. He was a soldier from Thrace who had a golden reputation and was working hard to increase his military status. [42], Dio was among those who gave a highly critical account of military discipline during the time, saying that the soldiers would rather just surrender to the enemy. It seems likely that Bassianus was his family name, since several of his relatives were also called as such, and Alexianus his actual given name, which was later converted to Alexander. Fue apodado, gracias a su preeminencia, «el exégeta» (ὁ ἐξηγητής). With the Thracian's hailing came the end of the Severan Dynasty,[49] and, with the growing animosity of Severus' army towards him, the path for his assassination was paved. According to the Augustan History, a late Roman work containing biographies of emperors and others, and considered by scholars to be a work of very dubious historical reliability,[60] Alexander prayed every morning in his private chapel. [65], Media related to Severus Alexander at Wikimedia Commons. [56] Pietro Bartoli indicates that the vase contained the ashes of Severus Alexander. Alejandro Severo — Este artículo o sección necesita referencias que aparezcan en una publicación acreditada, como revistas especializadas, monografías, prensa diaria o páginas de Internet fidedignas. The vase passed through the hands of Sir William Hamilton Ambassador to the Royal Court in Naples and was later sold to the Duke and Duchess of Portland, and has subsequently been known as the Portland Vase. [42] Different reasons are given for this issue; Campbell points to, "...the decline in the prestige of the Severan dynasty, the feeble nature of Alexander himself, who appeared to be no soldier and to be completely dominated by his mother's advice, and lack of real military success at a time during which the empire was coming under increasing pressure. New York: Robert Appleton Company. [citation needed] His advisers were men like the senator and historian Cassius Dio, and it is claimed that he created a select board of 16 senators,[14] although this claim is disputed. Emperador romano (222–235). The identity of Alexander's third wife is unknown. "[42], Herodian, on the other hand, was convinced that "the emperor's miserliness (partly the result of his mother's greed) and slowness to bestow donatives" were instrumental in the fall of military discipline under Alexander. Sucesor: Maximino el Tracio: Información personal; Nombre secular: Marco Aurelio Severo Alejandro: Nacimiento: 1 de octubre de 208 Arca Cesarea: Fallecimiento: 18 de marzo de 235 (26 años) Moguntiacum, Germania Superior: Familia; Dinastía: Dinastía Severa: Padre: Marco Julio Gesio Marciano: Madre: Julia Mamea: Cónyuge: Salustia Orbiana (225-227) However, at this point in Alexander's career, he still knew little about being a general. According to some sources inside the same sarcophagus in 1582 a precious glass urn was found, the Portland Vase, currently on display at the British Museum in London. [10], Throughout his life, Alexander relied heavily on guidance from his grandmother, Maesa, and then mother, Julia Mamaea. He was extremely tolerant of Jews and Christians alike. [30] Of the war that followed there are various accounts. [54] Thus, Alexander's taking of his mother's advice to not get involved in battle, his dishonorable and unsoldierly methods of dealing with the Germanic threat, and the relative failure of his military campaign against the Persians were all deemed highly unacceptable by the soldiers. Retrieved August 25, 2020 from New Advent: Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate", 1901–1906 Jewish Encyclopedia article "Alexander Severus", http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13743a.htm, "Severus Alexander (222–235 AD): The Calm before the Storm", Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, L. Roscius Aelianus Paculus Salvius Julianus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Severus_Alexander&oldid=991340655, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 15:27. [54] Yet by arrogating the power to dethrone their emperor, the legions paved the way for a half-century of widespread chaos and instability. But when campaigning against Germanic tribes, Alexander attempted to bring peace by engaging in diplomacy and bribery. The soldiers serving under Alexander, already demoralized after their costly war against the Persians, were further discontented with their emperor when their homes were destroyed by the barbarian invaders. hub.witness.org. It was the rumor of Alexander's death that triggered the assassination of Elagabalus and his mother.[3]. [45] Severus enforced a strict military discipline in his men that sparked a rebellion among his legions. OK. The Romans prepared heavily for the war, building a fleet to carry the entire army across. [44], As word of the invasion spread, the Emperor took the front line and went to battle against the Germanic invaders. [47], It was this decision that resulted in the legionaries looking down upon Alexander. [36][37] Still, Mesopotamia was retaken, and Ardashir was not thereafter able to extend his conquests, though his son, Shapur, would obtain some success later in the century. [21][22] He allowed a synagogue to be built in Rome, and he gave as a gift to this synagogue a scroll of the Torah known as the Severus Scroll. [57] Following catastrophic damage in 1845, this vase (1-25BC) has been reconstructed three times and resides in the British Museum. [15] He also created a municipal council of 14 who assisted the urban prefect in administering the affairs of the 14 districts of Rome. In 234, the barbarians crossed the Rhine and Danube in hordes that caused alarm as far as Rome. [38], Although the Sassanids were checked for the time,[33] the conduct of the Roman army showed an extraordinary lack of discipline. [53] After his death his economic policies were completely discarded, and the Roman currency was devalued; this signaled the beginning of the chaotic period known as the Crisis of the Third Century, which brought the empire to the brink of collapse.[49]. Although the Senate declared the emperor and his rule damned upon the report of his death and the ascension of a replacement emperor, Alexander was deified after the death of Maximinus in 238. Alexander's death marked the end of the Severan dynasty. Alexander was the heir to his cousin, the 18-year-old Emperor Elagabalus, who had been murdered along with his mother Julia Soaemias, by his own guards, who, as a mark of contempt, had their remains cast into the Tiber river. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. The future emperor Severus Alexander was born on 1 October 208 in Arca Caesarea, Phoenicia. Alexander’s body was buried together with the body of his mother Julia Manaea in a mausoleum in Rome. [9] The Roman army hailed Alexander as emperor on 13 March 222, immediately conferring on him the titles of Augustus, pater patriae and pontifex maximus. In 232, there was a mutiny in the Syrian legion, which proclaimed Taurinus emperor. [43], While Alexander was being educated in the Christian doctrines, the northern portion of his empire was being invaded by Germanic and Sarmatian tribes. It is still visible in Piazza dei Tribuni, in the Quadraro area in Rome, where it resembles a large earth mound. [33] Making Antioch his base, he organized in 233 a three-fold invasion of the Sassanian Empire; at the head of the main body he himself advanced to recapture northern Mesopotamia, while another army invaded Media through the mountains of Armenia, and a third advanced from the south in the direction of Babylon. Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus was the next best option. Cuando llegó a emperador se le otorgaron los títulos de Augusto y Pater Patria. [13] He employed noted jurists to oversee the administration of justice, such as the famous jurist Ulpian. The actual mausoleum, called Monte di Grano, is the third in size in Rome after the ones of Hadrian and of Augustus. [7], Severus Alexander became emperor when he was around 14 years old, making him the youngest emperor in Rome's history, until the ascension of Gordian III. A new and menacing enemy started to emerge directly after Alexander's success in the Persian war. Alexander's mother, Julia Mamaea, asked for Origen to tutor Alexander in Christianity. His mother Julia Mamaea was in the same tent with Alexander and soon fell victim to the same group of assassins.[50]. Busqui paraules i frases Milions en tots els idiomes. The following year he decreased the amount of base metal in the denarius while adding more silver, raising the silver purity and weight again to 50.5% and 1.50 grams. [63][64], Also according to the Historia Augusta, Alexander's "chief amusement consisted in having young dogs play with little pigs." [42], After the Persian war, Alexander returned to Antioch with the famous Origen, one of the greatest Fathers of the Christian Church. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. [24] He also confirmed that soldiers could free their slaves in their wills,[25] protected the rights of soldiers to their property when they were on campaign,[26] and reasserted that a soldier's property acquired in or because of military service (his castrense peculium) could be claimed by no one else, not even the soldier's father. Alexander's death marked the epoch event for the Crisis of the Third Century—nearly 50 years of civil wars, foreign invasion, and collapse of the monetary economy. This alienated many in the Roman Army, leading to a conspiracy that resulted in the assassination of Alexander and his mother Julia Avita Mamaea and the accession of Maximinus Thrax. A los 14 años de edad sucedió a Heliogábalo, que había sido asesinado por… …   Enciclopedia Universal, Alejandro de Afrodisias — (en griego antiguo Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Ἀφροδισιεύς) fue el más célebre de los comentaristas griegos de las obras de Aristóteles. [citation needed] According to historians, it was this tactic combined with insubordination from his own men that destroyed his reputation and popularity. Enciclopedia Universal. Alexander was married three times. Her father was a man of consular rank; her grandfather's name was Catulus.[59]. Alexander did not father children with any of his wives. [20], In religious matters, Alexander preserved an open mind. from the chapter entitled Administrative Strategies of the Emperor Severus Alexander and his Advisers, written by Lukas de Blois in the book Herrschaftsstrukturen und Herrschaftspraxis, chapter by. [29] In 231 AD, Ardeshir invaded the Roman provinces of the east, overrunning Mesopotamia and penetrating possibly as far as Syria and Cappadocia, forcing from the young Alexander a vigorous response. [46] He was also a man with superior personal strength, who rose to his present position from a peasant background. However, Rome was militarily confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire and growing incursions from the tribes of Germania. [41] The soldiers then fought a three-day battle against the populace of Rome, and this battle ended after several parts of the city were set on fire. This was allegedly found at the mausoleum of the Roman Emperor Alexander Severus and his family at Monte Del Grano. hub.witness.org. [33], Alexander's reign was also characterized by a significant breakdown of military discipline. A súa avoa, verdadeira gobernante na sombra e promotora do nomeamento de Heliogábalo como emperador, comprendeu que os excesos deste emperador estaban a levar ós Severos por mal camiño, xa que a súa perda de popularidade entre o pobo romano, as lexións e senadores era xa patente; conseguiu que no 221 se lle concedese a virilis toga e que fose nomeado por Heliogábalo como césar e sucesor. Though they were not yet expected to personally fight in battle during Alexander's time, emperors were increasingly expected to display general competence in military affairs. Alexander's 13-year reign was the longest reign of a sole emperor since Antoninus Pius. A partir de este momento cambió su nombre por el de Severo Alejandro. The first claims that the disaffection of Mamaea was the main motive behind the homicide. However, Lampridius makes it clear that he is more supportive of an alternative theory, that Alexander was murdered in Sicilia (located in Britain). He confirmed that soldiers could name anyone as heirs in their will, whereas civilians had strict restrictions over who could become heirs or receive a legacy. [40] In 228, the Praetorian Guard murdered their prefect, Ulpian,[40] in Alexander's presence. [39] Alexander managed to suppress the uprising, and Taurinus drowned while attempting to flee across the Euphrates. However, this together with the interpretations of the scenes depicted are the source of countless theories and disputed 'facts'. [13] Alexander divorced and exiled Orbiana in 227, after her father, Seius Sallustius, was executed after being accused of treason. [8] Thus, to preserve her own position, she had Elagabalus adopt the young Alexander and then arranged for Elagabalus' assassination, securing the throne for Alexander. According to the most detailed authority, Herodian, the Roman armies suffered a number of humiliating setbacks and defeats,[31] while according to the Historia Augusta[32] as well as Alexander's own dispatch to the Roman Senate, he gained great victories. [52], This theory has it that, in an open tent after his lunch, Alexander was consulting with his insubordinate troops, who compared him to his cousin Elagabalus, the divisive and unpopular Emperor whose own assassination paved the way for Alexander's reign. Alexander was forced to face his German enemies in the early months of 235. [55] His damnatio memoriae was also reversed after Maximinus's death. However, as soon as Orbiana received the title of Augusta, Mamaea became increasingly jealous and resentful of Alexander's wife due to Mamaea's excessive desire of all regal female titles. Severus Alexander (/ s ə ˈ v ɪər ə s /; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander Augustus; c. 208 – 19 March 235) was Roman Emperor from 222 to 235 and the last emperor of the Severan dynasty.He succeeded his cousin Elagabalus upon the latter's assassination in 222. [46] Due to incurring heavy losses against the Persians, and on the advice of his mother, Alexander attempted to buy the Germanic tribes off, so as to gain time. Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (1 October 208 – 19 March 235) was Roman emperor from 222 to 235, and the last from the Severan dynasty. Pusillanimity was responsible for the revolt of Alexander's army, resulting in Severus falling victim to the swords of his own men,[50] following the nomination of Maximinus as emperor. Consiguieron que Heliogábalo lo adoptara el 16 de junio de 221 d.C. y le nombrara César como su sucesor legítimo. [18] Additionally, during his reign taxes were lightened; literature, art and science were encouraged;[19] and, for the convenience of the people, loan offices were instituted for lending money at a moderate rate of interest. Alejandro Representación en un mosaico de Alejandro Magno en la batalla de Issos …   Wikipedia Español, Alejandro de Jerusalén — San Alejandro de Jerusalén Fallecimiento 251 Caesarea Maritima, Siria Palestina Venerado en Iglesia católica, Iglesia ortodox …   Wikipedia Español, Severo Sarduy — (Camagüey, Cuba; February 25, 1937 – Paris; June 8, 1993) was a Cuban poet, author, playwright, and critic of Cuban literature and art. He continued all privileges towards Jews during his reign,[61][62] and the Augustan History relates that Alexander placed images of Abraham and Jesus in his oratory, along with other Roman deities and classical figures. [5] Of his birth name, only two cognomina are known, from literary sources: Bassianus (Greek: Βασσιανός) according to the historian Cassius Dio, and Alexianus (Greek: Αλεξιανός) according to Herodian. BiographySarduy went to the equivalent of high school in Camagüey and in 1956 moved to Havana, where he began… …   Wikipedia, Severo Alejandro — Severo Alejandro, Marco Aurelio * * * latín Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander orig. By the time he and his mother arrived, the situation had settled, and so his mother convinced him that to avoid violence, trying to bribe the German army to surrender was the more sensible course of action. A handful of emperors since Antoninus Pius reigned for longer than 13 years, but for some or most of their reign they were co-emperors with others and therefore they were sole emperor for less than 13 years. In time, however, the army came to admire what Jasper Burns refers to as "his simple virtues and moderate behavior, so different from [Elagabalus]".[12]. The large sarcophagus found inside the tomb in the 16th century, and which contained the emperor’s remains, is in the Palazzo dei Conservatori Museum in Rome. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. The Portland vase itself was borrowed and near copied by Josiah Wedgewood who appears to have added modesty drapery. Alexander's attendants fought against the other troops but could not hold off the combined might of those seeking the Emperor's assassination. [23], In legal matters, Alexander did much to aid the rights of his soldiers. He was the last of the Syrian emperors and the first emperor to be overthrown by military discontent on a wide scale. Alexander Severus. Under the influence of his mother, Alexander did much to improve the morals and condition of the people, and to enhance the dignity of the state. Within minutes, Alexander was dead. [34][35] Further losses were incurred by the retreating northern army in the inclement cold of Armenia as it retired into winter quarters, due to an incompetent failure to establish adequate supply lines. [11] As a young, immature, and inexperienced adolescent, Alexander knew little about government, warcraft, or the role of ruling over an empire.